Hiljuti lisatud

Bernd-Christian Otto
Western learned magic' in a nutshell: the Leipzig collection of codices magici (Cod. Mag.)

Visiting Lectures on Magic in Religious Studies and in the Western Intellectual History
In cooperation with the Graduate School of Culture Studies and Arts, Bernd-Christian Otto, one of the leading experts on magic in Western religious and intellectual history, a fellow at the Käte Hamburger Kolleg, Bochum University, and an associated fellow at the Max Weber Centre for Advanced Cultural and Social Studies, Erfurt University will hold three guest lectures on magic at the University of Tartu from March 20 to March 22, 2019.


The university library of Leipzig hosts one of the most extensive and complete early modern collections of hand-written manuscripts of ‘Western learned magic’. The collection was sold in 1710 for an extraordinary price, and both the selling catalogue entitled ‘catalogus rariorum manuscriptorum’ as well as 134 (of 140) manuscripts have survived. The collection is unique in several ways: with numerous texts going back to late antiquity and the Middle Ages, as well as early modern adaptations and innovations, the collection attests both the longue-durée nature of the textual-ritual tradition of ‘Western learned magic’ as well as its striking adaptability and changeability. With over hundred texts translated into German, it attests processes of vernacularising texts and techniques of ‘learned magic’ in German-speaking Europe that happened significantly earlier than assumed thus far. With over 65 % of the texts devoted to the Solomonic art of conjuring spirits, the collection provides a unique window into ritual knowledge that was highly contested and illegal at the time, and at the same time demonstrates that this knowledge was much more elaborate and versatile in the 17th and 18th centuries than assumed thus far. After an introduction into the concept and tradition of ‘Western learned magic’, the lecture provides an overview over the history and contents of the Leipzig Cod. Mag. collection. 

"These events have been financed by the University of Tartu ASTRA Project PER ASPERA (European Regional Development Fund)."

 

20.03.2019 25 vaatamist Kultuuriteadus ja kunstid Usuteadus

Yauhen Yakimenka PhD „Failure Structures of Message-Passing Algorithms in Erasure Decoding and Compressed Sensing"

Supervisor:
Assoc. Prof. Vitaly Skachek (Institute of Computer Science, UT)
 
Opponents:
Prof. Jörg Kliewer (New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA)
Prof. Jens Zumbrägel (University of Passau, Germany)

Summary of the Thesis:
 
The presented results are from two different—on the face of it—fields, message-passing channel decoding and compressed sensing. Channel decoding deals with reliable transmission of information. In our case, we consider the binary erasure channel (BEC). This means that a bit one sends is received either unchanged or erased completely.  A fundamental result by Shannon was as follows: whatever bad channel you have, there is always a way to send information reliably (i.e. with vanishing probability of error) if you encode large enough blocks of information together. One of the most popular algorithms used for decoding nowadays is message-passing, which is fast but not optimal, i.e. sometimes it fails while the reconstruction is still possible with a more sophisticated method. In this thesis, we try to build a bridge between these two methods. Another aforementioned problem, compressed sensing, is based on the following observation. Many important signals can be represented as sparse vectors, i.e. vectors with many zeroes. It was suggested to compress such signals on-the-fly, by implicitly multiplying them by a measurement matrix. We consider one of the suboptimal algorithms, the interval-passing algorithm. More precisely, we ask a question on what are the conditions for the algorithm to fail. We were able to give a complete graph-theoretic criterion of reconstruction success. We considered failures of both message-passing decoding and the interval-passing algorithm for compressed sensing. This allowed us to unveil many similarities and how one can translate the research tools between the algorithms.

 

15.03.2019 59 vaatamist Arvutiteadus

prof Pärtel Piirimäe inauguratsiooniloeng
„Orjus ja vabadus Eesti mõtteloos“

Tänavu möödub 200 aastat Liivimaa talurahva vabastamisest pärisorjusest ja 150 aastat sellele sündmusele pühendatud esimesest üldlaulupeost. „Orjus“ ja „vabadus“ on üks keskseid mõistepaare Eesti ajalookirjutuses, folklooris, kirjanduses ja mõtteloos. Eesti rahvusliku ajalookontseptsiooni üks läbivaid motiive on eestlaste vabadusepüüe ning vabaduse kõige selgem vastand on orjus, mis on kaasnenud võõrvallutuse ja -võimuga. Vabadus võib tähendada iseenda peremeheks olemist nii üksikisikuna kui ka terve rahvusena, määrates ise enda saatust ning olles peremeheks omal maal. Vabaduse ja orjuse vastandpaar on olnud üheks peamiseks lähtealuseks Eesti ajaloo periodiseerimisel ning eri perioodidele hinnangu andmisel.
14.03.2019 1031 vaatamist Humaniora Ajalugu ja arheoloogia